A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power in one circuit to a different one without changing frequency. This really is a simple concept of transformer. Since there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is actually a static device. Transformer runs using ac supply. Transformer works about the principle of mutual induction.
If we should be aware of reputation of transformer we have return back long within the 1880s. Around 50 years before that in 1830 property of induction the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved contributing to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the big capacity of electrical transformers in the plethora of several KVA, MVA came into existence. In 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In the early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and also higher KV class transformers were manufactured in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is incredibly much cost effective. Theoretically, this low voltage level power could be transmitted to the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted results in greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut in the event the voltage amount of a power is increased, the existing from the power is reduced that causes decline in ohmic or I2R losses from the system, decline in cross sectional section of the conductor i.e. decline in capital cost of the program and it likewise improves the voltage regulating the system. As a result of these, low level power needs to be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is accomplished by step up transformer on the sending side of your power system network. Because this high voltage power might not be given to the consumers directly, this should be stepped right down to the required level on the receiving end through the help of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays an important role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are usually used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is in excess of 2. It really is affordable to make use of auto transformer where the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is lower than 2. Again an individual unit three phase transformer is a lot more cost effective than a bank of three 200kv power transformer in a three phase system. But a single three phase transformer unit is a bit difficult to transport and have to be pulled from service entirely if one of several phase winding reduces.
Forms of Transformer
Transformers may be categorized in a different way, based upon their purpose, use, construction etc. The sorts of transformer are listed below,
Improve Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally utilized for stepping all around the voltage degree of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is generally found in three phase power system since it is affordable than later. But once size matters, it really is preferable to use a bank of three single phase transformer as it is quicker to transport than one single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are typically used in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and possesses maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps down the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It offers good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs every day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are utilized to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which can be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is often used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It is affordable to work with later where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is lower than 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are designed for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers created for installing at indoor are furnace transformer.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer they have two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular in shape by using a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are placed for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It possesses a central limb as well as 2 outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are put about the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is there.
Berry type transformer: The core appears like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this particular transformer with transformer oil filled inside.